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  • 12 Apr 2022 10:13 AM | Alex James (Administrator)

    This is a summary of the key points from the webinar and paddock walk on plant identification with Jo Powells, Geoff Robertson and Margaret Ning in March 2022.

    You can watch the webinar by clicking on this link

    The key messages from this paddock walk are summarised below, and links to further information on each topic can be found at the bottom the page;

    • Grasses are usually categorised by the shape of their seed head.
    • Different parts of grasses are used to identify species these include nodes, auricles, leaf shape and ligules. The presence and absence of hairs on the leaf, nodes, stem and other parts of the grass can also help identify different species.
    • Perennial grasses are classified as C3 or C4 grasses, this refers to the way in which the grasses capture carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. They are adapted to different environments, with C3 grasses found in temperate areas, while C4 grasses come from tropical climates.
    • Cocksfoot grass has branched, open panicles and is folded like a book at the base of the leaf, phalaris has a round stem with cylindrical seed head.
    • Grass weeds such as Serrated Tussock, Chilean Needle Grass and African Love Grass can be a big problem for property owners. African love grass has a seed panicle that looks like a Christmas tree, Chilean Needle Grass has distinct ribbed, hairy leaves and a corona at the base of the seed awn. Serrated tussock is largely indigestible and can cause animals to die of malnutrition. Find out more about these weeds in the NSW DPI Weed Wise App.
    • Not sure what you’ve got at your place? Contact South East Local Land Services, local council weeds officer or try logging your sighting on the Canberra Nature Map website or app for identification.

    Chilean Needle Grass Seed Head – Photo NSW DPI

    Jo Powells is a Senior Agricultural Adviser - Pastures from South East Local Land Services based in Cooma.

    Contact your nearest South East Local Land Services Office.


    Friends of Grasslands (FOG) – Parts of Grasses 

    Department of Primary industry and Fisheries – C3 and C4 Grasses

    Ag Guide Pastures in Farming Systems

    Grasses of the NSW Tablelands

    Canberra Nature Map

    NSW DPI pasture plant species and varieties

    Grass Identification

    This event was made possible with funding from the Australian Government thorough the National Landcare Program and in-kind support from South East Local Land Services.

  • 26 Oct 2021 5:37 PM | Alex James (Administrator)

    In this webinar we explored the topic of trees and climate change with Cameron Pensini the Sustainability Project Officer from the Queanbeyan Palerang Regional Council and Dr David Freudenberger from the Australian National University.

    The webinar was recorded on 13 October 2021, you can view the recording here.

    These are the main points from the webinar:

    • Surface heat mapping done by the Queanbeyan Palerang Regional Council (QPRC) shows that urban areas like Queanbeyan, Googong, Braidwood and Bungendore are significantly hotter than natural areas such as Tallaganda National Park. These towns are urban heat islands and are two degrees warmer than the surrounding landscape. The council is developing an urban cooling strategy to combat the problem of heat islands and has studied tree species that might be suitable for establishing urban forests. The QPRC has developed a list of 130 suitable trees for the future urban cooling project and has established a trial site for urban trees in Bungendore.
    • The rational for selecting trees species for climate change in urban areas can be applied to a rural setting. For more information click on the Yass Area Network and Macquarie University Guide below.
    • Dead grass has the same surface temperature as bitumen, which can be up to four degrees hotter than forest areas.
    • Due to human impacts our land is now a ‘novel landscape’ that is vastly different to what it was prior to human habitation. Novel landscapes or ecosystems occur when a new combination of species appear due to human activity, environmental change or the impact of introduced species (Lyndenmayer et al 2008).
    • ‘Ecosystem services’ are the benefits provided to humans through the transformation of natural resources (land, water, vegetation and atmosphere) into goods and services essential to life and wellbeing. These ‘goods and services’ include clean air, water, climate regulation, soil building, habitat, fertility and food. Trees provide provisioning, regulating, processing and cultural services to human beings. These free services are essential to human life but are often difficult to attribute a monetary value to.
    • Every bit counts when it comes to vegetation and planting trees. Even a small patch of high-quality vegetation can help provide rich diversity on farms. For further information see Greening Australia and the Australian National University, Sustainable Farms Project links below.  

    Further information

    Macquarie University Climate Ready Revegetation Guide

    Keeping it Cool – Vegetation and Heat Adaptation Strategy - Queanbeyan Palerang Regional Council

    Yass Area Network Climate Ready Project

    Fodder trees and shrubs workshop

    Revegetation for small farms

    Key Concepts of Ecosystem Services

    Lyndenmayer, D.B. et al (2008), Novel ecosystems resulting from landscape transformation create dilemmas for modern conservation practice, Conbio Online Library 26/11/2021 https://conbio.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2008.00021.x

    ANU Sustainable Farms Research

    The Crossing Courses and Workshops

    Greening Australia Connecting and Protecting Landscapes

    This event is funded by the NSW Government through an Increasing Resilience to Climate Change (IRCC) Community Grant. 

  • 20 Oct 2021 1:02 PM | Alex James (Administrator)

    This is a summary of a webinar recorded on the 7 October 2021 with Jason McWhirter the District Officer, Lake George Zone - NSW Rural Fire Service. In this webinar Jason shared his expertise in planning for and managing bushfire.

    You can watch the webinar recording by following this link

    These are the key points from the webinar:

    • Each region in NSW has a Bushfire Risk Management Plan. In the Bungendore region it is called the Lake George Bushfire Risk Management Plan (BFRMP). These plans are developed by a committee of local residents, agencies and the NSW Rural Fire Service. The BFRMP is a strategic document for each region that identifies community assets and sets out a five-year multi agency response to reduce the risk of bushfire impacting these assets. Community assets include human settlements, economic infrastructure, environmental and cultural assets. Once the asset assessment is completed treatments are prescribed to reduce the risk of bushfire. The treatments can include hazard reduction burning, grazing, community education, fire trail maintenance and establishing local Rural Fire Service (RFS) groups. 
    • The NSW Fire Service can assist land managers with the construction and management of Asset Protection Zones through the Hazard Reduction Certificate process, this includes approval for vegetation management, hazard reduction burning and clearing. Hazard management is done to reduce fuel loads that influence the rate and intensity of fire.
    • Every landholder should develop and Asset Protection Zones around their house in bushfire prone areas. The Asset Protection Zone allows you to manage vegetation to reduce the risk of bushfire impacting a house. Measures can include mowing, establishing lawn, clearing trees and shrubs away from the house and using non- flammable mulches. Jason explained the 10/50-meter rule that applies to private home owners in bushfire prone areas. The scheme allows people living in designated areas to clear trees within 10 meters of their home and clear underlying vegetation within 50 meters of their home without approval. More detailed information about this rule can be found in the link below.
    • Local RFS Community Engagement Officers can help you develop a vegetation management plan, offer advice on equipment and applying for a hazard reduction certificate. You can book a site visit with your local RFS Brigade or contact your local Fire Control Centre.
    • It’s a good idea to discuss your fire plan with your neighbours.
    • Embers can travel tens of kilometres ahead of the fire front and can stay alight for several days after the fire.
    • A Fire Permit is required from the 1st October -31st May and can be obtained from the NSW Rural Fire Service. Hazard Reduction Certificates are only required for native vegetation.
    • HOW FIRE PROOF IS YOUR PLAN? Bushfire Survival Plans are essential for every landholder. Jason’s advice is to think about what your trigger points are for action. This could include leaving early on catastrophic fire days or leaving when the fire gets within a certain radius. Jason said that it is a good idea to give everyone in the household a job (including young children). Include in your plan how you will manage livestock and think about access to feed and water for 3-7 days post fire.
    • Equipment and access – when property planning make sure you think about the size of your gate and driveway. Will a fire truck FIT? Plan 20,000 L water storage for bushfire fighting, a diesel pump, 38 mm firefighting canvas hose with STORZ fittings, a bucket and mop for putting out embers, P2 mask, cotton clothing, boots and hat. 
    More information on getting ready for bushfire season can be found in the links below.

    More information and links

    Bushfire Risk Management Plans - NSW Fire Service

    10/50 meter rule

    Hazard Reduction Certificate and Standards

    Bushfire Survival Plans 

    RFS Farm Fire Plan

    Livestock and bushfire resources 

    NSW Department of Primary Industries 

    South East Local Land Services 1300 795 299 

    Vegetation Management

    Victorian Country Fire Authority - Landscaping for bushfire 

    Please note that this is a Victorian website, but it has relevant information for this topic.

    Australian Network for Plant Conservation 2019/20 bushfire resources page

    Fire retardant plants for ACT

    This webinar was made possible with funding from the New South Wales Government through an Increasing Resilience to Climate Change (IRCC) Community Grant.

  • 2 Sep 2021 12:14 PM | Alex James (Administrator)

    This webinar was held on the 18 August 2021 with Dr Lou Baskind from South East Local Land Services and Dan Head from Value Life Farm.

    You can watch the recording here.

    Below is a summary of the key points from the webinar and a list of resources for more information.

    Water and nutrition- Pigs require access to high quality water and feed. They are monogastric animals like humans. In order of priority, pigs need fresh water, energy, protein, macro nutrients and other micro nutrients.

    The pig’s diet will influence the growth rate and quality of pork you produce. Pasture alone is not adequate to meet the nutritional needs of pigs and supplementary feeding is essential. Dan uses a sustainably sourced pig feed in bulka bags from Heritage Feeds. The amount of feed a pig requires will depend on the age and stage of development. Dan gave an example of a feeding regime that he uses - piglets are fed ad lib until they are five months old and then 2kg/head/day except for lactating sows then the rate increases to 7 kg/day.

    Pigs are curious animals and can damage water troughs, a closed off inlet valve can be useful for preventing damage to troughs or you can use water nipples.

    Swill Feeding is illegal in Australia.

    Swill feeding is the traditional name for the feeding of food scraps to pigs. Prohibited pig feed (‘swill’) includes meat (raw, cooked or processed), bone, blood, offal or hide derived from a mammal and anything that has come into contact with these materials (NSW DPI).

    Pigs are considered high risk for the introduction of exotic diseases in to Australia and swill feeding is considered to be the most likely pathway of disease introduction.

    Penning and housing- Wallowing is an important natural behaviour of pigs. Pigs cannot sweat so wallowing allows them to moderate their body temperature. Pigs can be kept on a deep litter system, where the manure and urine are composted down with wood chips. Dan uses electric fencing for his pigs, he trains them using feed and uses boards to move them in yards if required. This method of handling is referred to as low stress livestock handling and will improve meat quality (see refences below). Shelter is also important for pigs, especially for furrowing sows and piglets, and during the summer months to protect them from sunburn and heat stress.

    Pigs can be raised outdoors and used for removing weeds, cultivation and rotational grazing. They can be raised successfully using organic and regenerative agriculture principles. Dan sought inspiration from Joel Salatin, Justin Rhodes and has his own YouTube Channel. For more information visit the Value Life Farm website.

    Disease and zoonosis – pigs carry several diseases that can spread to humans including leptospirosis, Erysipelas, Q Fever and Brucella suis. If you are handling pigs, it is worthwhile checking with your doctor what vaccinations you should consider, and with your vet about how to vaccinate your pigs in order to protect yourself as well.

    Piglet castration – male piglets must be castrated using a knife not rings like the ones used for lambs. Seek advice from your vet or an experienced pig farmer.

    Councils have rules about owning pigs – check with your local council before buying them.

    Emergency Animal Disease Watch Hotline

    1800 675 888

    Property Identification and moving pigs - all owners of pigs require a property identification code (PIC). Look at this handy guide from the NSW Department of Primary Industries for more information.

    Moving Pigs Eight Step Guide


    Swill feeding

    Pig husbandry and housing

    Pig nutrition Basics - DAF QLD

    Deep litter housing for pigs

    Responsible pig ownership - NSW DPI

    Eight must dos for pig ownership - NSW DPI

    Pig biosecurity management resources 

    Local Government rules

    Local Government (General) Regulation 2005

    Part 5 Standards for Keeping Birds or Animal, Keeping of Swine clauses 17 and 18.

    Palerang Local Government Planning rules for keeping pigs

    Queanbeyan Palerang Regional Council Duty Planner 1300 735 025.

    Low stress handling research

    Grandin T., (2020) “Livestock Handling at the Abattoir: Effects on Welfare and Meat Quality”, Meat and Muscle Biology 4(2). doi: https://doi.org/10.22175/mmb.9457

    Grandin T., (2019) Understanding Flight Zone and Point of Balance for Low Stress Handling of Cattle, Sheep, and Pigs.

    Pig Agskills Book - Tocal Collage NSW

    This webinar was made possible with funding from the NSW Environmental Trust through Every Bit Counts Project and with in-kind support from South East Local Land Services District Veterinarian Dr Lou Baskind and Dan Head from Value Life Farm.

  • 1 Sep 2021 4:10 PM | Alex James (Administrator)

    The Small Farms Network Capital Region was a Land for Wildlife Provider from June 2017 to April 2021. During that time we facilitated the assessment of 64 properties in the Palerang District. Our intrepid Land for Wildlife assessors were Kris Nash and Jo Walker who bought years of experience along with encyclopaedic knowledge of plants and natural resource management (NRM) to the program. They used this experience to provide landholders with advice and education about the plants and animals on their properties.

    The Land for Wildlife Program is a free, non-binding program for landholders. Under the program, property owners receive a free visit from a NRM specialist and a report about the plants and animals living on their property.

    Jo and Kris reflect below on their experience being Land for Wildlife assessors for the Small Farms Network Capital Region and the former Palerang Action Network for Sustainability.

    Most people are surprised to learn the diversity they have on their farm

    It was fascinating to discover the variety of landscapes existing in the area we covered, ranging from tall forests to grassy open expanses and including rocky outcrops of shale or granite, creeks, gullies and dams. Identifying plants involved peering into the high branches of eucalypts, crawling through shrubbery and kneeling to get a close look at Sundews and other tiny plants.

    Sometimes we came across threatened ecological communities (grassy box woodland, grasslands) and uncommon or threatened plant species but otherwise we encountered everything from dense to open forest, patches with an intact and diverse native understorey, to low diversity paddocks with a few remnant eucalypts.

    There were a few surprises too. I think the most memorable was an understorey of purple-flowering Comesperma ericinum (Heath Milkwort) in an area of dry forest in Wamboin.  This species is not common in this area and usually occurs as an individual plant or in small groups.

    The average number of plants per property was 60 species (112 from one property), with 316 different native plants recorded across the assessment area. Many more species would have been recorded had it been possible to visit everyone during spring, but most property owners were pleasantly surprised at the number of native plants on their block. All properties had at least 0.5 ha of native vegetation, most had far more.

    Weeds, wildlife habitat and wombats

    The most common issue discussed was the identification and control of weeds including woody weeds, sifton bush, pine trees, various noxious grasses, pesky annuals and garden escapees. Other issues included erosion control, the enhancement of dams, protecting native seed stock from grazing animals, rehabilitation, salinity control and feral animal management.

    We encountered goannas, baby kangaroos and wombats, threatened birds and frogs, scats, scratchings, nests and diggings of many animals, and sadly a bunch of sugar glider tails.  

    So how can we improve our land? 

    Our main advice to property owners was to weed, weed, weed and more weeding. We know this is easier said than done but removing pressure from weedy plants will provide more room for native grassland and bush to recover. Other common advice included keeping as much exposed or disturbed soil covered as possible, 80% at least, through mulching, laying heavy logs, branches and/or rocks. Planting additional plants is not usually necessary when the understorey is diverse and there is regeneration of overstory species. That ‘mess’ is great for biodiversity and should be valued. The other major goal should be to retain and protect remnant trees for their all-important hollows for nesting birds and animals.

    Great people and a few eccentrics too

    It was also interesting to talk to the people who had invited us onto their land for the assessments. They were as diverse as the plants, but all had a deep desire to do something for the environment and the local wildlife. Several of them were wildlife rescuers and carers.  The pig purchased as a ‘mini’ but now grown to an enormous stature deserves a mention, as does the lengths people have gone to, to provide homes and habitat for the animals sharing their properties. They were all very keen to know what plants were on their land and their relationship with the local wildlife, and were sometimes amazed by the number of native plants on the lists. To help them understand which plants were listed, we provided them with some information and a follow up email.

    Altogether, it was a rewarding experience for us to be able to provide enthusiastic landholders with more knowledge of their farm. It was a privilege to be part of the Land for Wildlife program and humbling to meet such dedicated and caring people. It was a personal highlight to assist landholders discover just how diverse and valuable for wildlife their individual properties were.

    Individual land holders and the broader community has benefited from Jo and Kris’s expertise and enthusiasm for helping others to learn about the natural environment. Vicki, one of the landholders, had this to say about the assessment done by Jo and Kris.

    ‘I found the whole Land for Wildlife experience very positive and learnt a lot about the plants growing here. It was great to know we had such diversity on our farm. The visit from Jo and Kris helped us appreciate the value of the habitat that we have on our farm. Rather than thinking we have a paddock of rocky outcrops we now see a paddock with great habitat potential. Being given a list of species was the icing on the cake. The assessment has encouraged me to focus more on weed removal instead of re-vegetation. Over-all our visit from Jo and Kris was a very enlightening and positive experience from extremely knowledgeable and committed people.’

    Thanks for the funding and support

    The Small Farms Network Land for Wildlife Program would not have been possible without the support of the Geary’s Gap/Wamboin Landcare Group., National Landcare Program and John Asquith from the Community Environment Centre. 

    Here is a message from Geary’s Gap Landcare.

    Gearys Gap/Wamboin Landcare Group has been very pleased to have been able to support LfW in this region over the past decade. The activities of Landcare and Land for Wildlife are complementary and each makes a valuable contribution to the natural environment of this region. The excellent collaborative work of the two organisations has been exemplary.

    Thanks to Jo and Kris for a wonderful contribution and to all our supporters.

    For more information on the Land for Wildlife program please contact the Community Environment Centre.

  • 4 Aug 2021 4:00 PM | Alex James (Administrator)

    Chris Curtis from Roogulli Farm presented at this webinar on the 21 July 2021. Wicking beds are plant containers with a water reservoir in the bottom of the container, water wicks up through the potting medium through capillary action. At this webinar Chris discussed his research into several growing mediums and the water holding capacity of different reservoir materials in wicking beds.

    You can view a recording of the webinar on YouTube here.

    A copy of the abstract from Chris’s research can be downloaded here and you can read the full dissertation on his website

    These are the main points from the webinar:

    • Some materials are more efficient at wicking water than others. Chris’s research shows that gravel and scoria have poor capillary rise and are not efficient as reservoir materials for wicking beds. These materials do not wick water efficiently into the root zone of plants. 
    • Cocopeat and Waterups are good at wicking water from the water reservoir to a depth of 150mm and maintained the best soil moisture for plant growth.
    • Using geotextile between the reservoir and growing layers showed no significant difference to the performance of the wicking bed in this study.


    You can download a copy of Chris’s PowerPoint presentation here.

    Pulse water meter 

    Thank you to Chris for volunteering his time to present this webinar.

    The Small Farms Network Capital Region received funding from the NSW Government Department of Planning, Industry and Environment Increasing Resilience to Climate Change community grants program.

    More information about the community grants can be found here

  • 22 Jul 2021 2:04 PM | Alex James (Administrator)

    On Saturday 10 and Sunday 11 April 2021 we met Den Barber from Yarrabin Cultural Connections and a team of cultural burning practitioners at Birkenburn Farm near Bungendore to learn about Aboriginal cultural burning.

    The workshop began with an Acknowledgement of Country and Smoking Ceremony. The smoking ceremony involves smouldering gum leaves to produce smoke, which provides a spiritual cleansing and protection for all workshop participants.

    For Aboriginal people, cultural burning is an ancient traditional practice used for thousands of years throughout the many different Cultural Lands of Australia. The process is complex with many interconnected objectives including protecting cultural assets by maintaining the health of surrounding country, protecting ceremonial sites, habitat enhancement and fuel reduction. Fuel reduction is often not the primary objective. Cultural burning uses frequent, low intensity fires that do not adversely impact parent trees or the forest canopy. Parent trees are considered sacred by Aboriginal people.

    You don’t manage your mother you look after her

    Den Barber told us about the Aboriginal belief of caring for Mother Earth. Before starting the fire, we prepared the burn site (under the direction of our guides) by raking back excessive bushfire fuel loads of bark, leaves and sticks from the base of the trees. It was necessary to create containment lines in this ‘Country’ that has not seen any fire for more than 50 years by raking debris to create bare tracks.  Den showed us a ‘parent tree’ which had a hollow in it, we could see signs that the hollow was in use because there were scratch marks and frass at the base of the tree.

    Cultural burns help protect native animal habitat by reducing fuel loads and the intensity of fires. The low intensity of a cultural burn allows animals, insects and reptiles to move away from the fire. By protecting the forest canopy the ecosystem is preserved, unlike bushfires where whole ecosystems can be lost in one fire event.

    The right fire at the right time

    Cultural burning is not about saving money or meeting hazard reduction burn targets. It is about putting the right type of fire, at the right time into the right landscape. This takes time, patience and guidance from an Aboriginal practitioner. Aboriginal people have a relationship with fire and the Mother Earth, they are the traditional custodians of fire in the Australian Landscape.

    Let go of time… and be patient

    Den taught us the right way to start a fire by establishing a single ignition point in the middle of the burn site, so that the fire will move out in a circular fashion from that point. Using a series of fires like this produces a mosaic burn effect in the landscape. The fire is low and slow and aims to predominantly leave only a black ash layer behind. Some patches and even individual plants will not be burnt.

    A cultural burn will only be conducted during suitable weather conditions including the right amount of wind, temperature, humidity as well as the appropriate season.

    Look for signs that a burn is needed, this could involve asking yourself questions. What are the fuel loads like in the forest? Are the trees or shrubs fruiting? How much dead grass is in the tussocks? Is one plant type dominating?

    Burning in grassland is like mowing the lawn

    Slow cool burning protects the roots of the grasses and shrubs so they can regenerate when it rains. Den suggests that grassland is ready to burn when 50% of the tussock is dead grass.

    One of our guides shared his experience of using cultural burning to manage Serrated Tussock. Burning tussock at the right time of the year can reduce seed heads and create space for other plants to establish. Burning over several years is required and can be used as part of an integrated weed management plan.

    Knowledge is only powerful when shared

    Towards the end of the workshop, we asked how non-Aboriginal people could apply the knowledge learnt at the workshop? What should we call a burn if we want to conduct one? Den’s answer ‘if you have received Cultural Knowledge, you should acknowledge that it is a Traditional Aboriginal Cultural Practice. It is good to share and practice cultural burning regardless of your heritage.’

    The generous way in which Den and the Yarrabin Fire Crew shared their traditional knowledge was appreciated by everyone attending the workshop.

    Rural Fire Service perspective

    A Bush Fire Hazard Reduction Certificate may be required to perform any type of burning on privately owned land and a Fire Permit from the Rural Fire Service (RFS) is required during the bushfire period. You need to comply with the conditions of the certificate or permit including safety requirements and notifying your neighbours. Notification of intention to burn is a relatively simple process that can be done online. Please contact the RFS for more information.


    Firesticks Alliance 

    Yarrabin Cultural Connections Pty Ltd  

    Steffensen, V (2020). Fire Country: How Indigenous Fire Management Could Help Save Australia. Richmond, Hardie Grant Explore, Australia. 

    Australian Story documentary featuring Victor Steffensen 

    CSIRO publishing ‘How Indigenous Fire Management Could Help Save Australia’ 

    NSW Rural Fire Service

    Fire permits

    Notification of intention to burn

    Savanna burning

    Nature Conservancy Research into the effects on cultural burning on climate change

    Serrated Tussock

    Burning as a control method for Serrated Tussock

    This event was funded by the NSW Government through an Increasing Resilience to Climate Change (IRCC) Community Grant. 

  • 22 Jul 2021 11:25 AM | Alex James (Administrator)

    This workshop was held in Bywong in July 2021 and was about constructing animal yards that are suitable for keeping farm animal safe and predators out. Our guest speaker was Chris Curtis from Roogulli Farm.

    You can watch Chris talk about predator proofing animal yards in a short video here. 

    Key Points

    • Think about the athletic abilities of the feral predator you are trying to keep out of an animal pen. Feral predators can push, dig, climb, jump or chew through fences. Foxes can jump up 1.8 meters high. Design your fence based on the animal you are wanting to keep out.
    • Breed healthy animals – healthy lambs with good mothers are less likely to by predated by foxes. It is good management to bury the placenta and birthing refuse after lambing. One study found that fox predation accounted for 0.8% of lamb deaths. Choose a breed of sheep known for good mothering, paying attention to nutrition and ewe health.
    • Electric fencing provides a psychological barrier for feral predators and other animals, but is generally less effective at keeping out feral predators than a permanent fence.
    • To be effective against foxes, a permanent fence should be 1.8 m high with a 600mm floppy top and 600mm skirt that is buried or pegged into the ground. See the link to the Fencing for Fox Control below for more information on designs. An example of an overhanging fence of this type designed for foxes, cats and rabbits can be found at Mulligans Flat Reserve in the ACT.
    • You can install a wildlife gate for wombats. The gate should be a steel plate hinged at the top and weighing 4-5 kilograms so only wombats can push it open.
    • Guardian animals including Maremma dogs and alpacas are effective in reducing predation by foxes and wild dogs.

    Chris provided the following resources for this workshop, click on the link below to open them:

    Predator proofing animal enclosures PowerPoint presentation

    Bibliography – a list of research papers on this topic

    Chris has designed a simple box addition to his chicken coop that allows chickens to enter the coop but excludes foxes. The bends in the entry way are designed so that the fox cannot bend around the tight corners. 


    Lamb predation and fox control in south-eastern Australia 2001

    Fencing for fox control. Factsheet, Centre for Invasive Species Solutions, 2012. PestSmart website. 

    Cost effective feral animal exclusion fencing for areas of high conservation value in Australia, Natural Heritage Trust 2004.

    Wombat Gate 

    Alpacas as guardian animals

    Guardian Dogs – Best Practice Guide to the use of Maremma dogs as guardian dogs, Invasive Animal Cooperative Research Centre

    Toolkit resource - guardian animals for livestock protection and wild dog exclusion 

    This project was supported by the NSW Government through a grant from South East Local Land Services.

  • 11 Jul 2021 7:22 PM | Jennie Curtis (Administrator)
    Ashleigh Wildridge and Peter Dagg from Animal Health Australia, with assistance from Penny, presented an overview about sheep health and biosecurity. This information is relevant even if you only have a couple pet sheep.

    Watch the webinar recording in YouTube.

    Key points

    • Anything that moves can bring in pests, weeds and diseases
    • Making a whole of farm plan can help you decide the best place for paddocks, yards, trees, water, feed storage and visitor access
    • Making a footbath for visitors going into your paddocks is as easy as a bucket of (diluted) bleach
    • Quarantine all livestock that enter/return to your property for at least 21 days
    • Yards are easy to set up and make handling sheep much easier - they don’t have to be expensive
    • Your local vet can help you to learn about vaccinating and drenching
    • Check feed and water regularly for contaminants and keep them away from pests
    • Feed off the ground in a consistent location to reduce contamination of food and to help manage any weeds that come with the feed
    • You need a Property Identification Code (PIC) before you can bring livestock onto your property (contact Local Land Services)
    • When buying sheep, get a National Vendor Declaration (NVD) and a sheep health declaration from the seller and keep these in your records, NLIS registration is essential so you can record the movement of the sheep onto your property
    • Avoid buying sheep online, especially from social media pages or Gumtree if seller will not provide an NVD and sheep health declaration
    • When selling sheep, you need to have Livestock Production Assurance (LPA) accreditation so that you can provide an NVD to the buyer along with a sheep health declaration
    • Chat to your neighbours about pest and weed control since working together can be more effective


    A National Guide for Smallholder Livestock Producers
    (Meat and Livestock Australia)

    This guide, providing an overview of your responsibilities when keeping livestock including pet sheep in Australia, is a good place to start.


    Farm Biosecurity toolkit
    (Animal Health Australia and Plant Health Australia)

    Forms, biosecurity manual and other resources for creating your biosecurity plan


    A Producer’s Guide to Sheep Husbandry Practices 
    (Meat and Livestock Australia)

    Guidance for many standard sheep handling and treatment practices including yards, tagging, injections, worm egg counts, drenching, foot trimming, lamb marking and humane killing.


    Sheep Calendar of Operations
    (NSW Local Land Services)

    What to do when for sheep on the NSW South Coast region

    General information about biosecurity, health and welfare for sheep (Animal Health Australia)

    National Livestock Identification System (NLIS)
    Register here to be able to record sheep movements on and off your property (this is free)

    Meat and Livestock Australia
    Register with MyMLA as the first step to gaining LPA accreditation so you can sell sheep (even pet sheep) and write NVDs

    Animal Carcass Disposal
    (NSW DPI)
    Safe handling and disposal of carcasses.

    Yards and Equipment
    (NSW DPI)
    Series of fact sheets about design of yards, sheep handlers, ramps and shearing sheds.

    Straying Stock
    (NSW DPI)
    What to do if stock stray onto your property

    Vaccination in Sheep Flocks
    (Meat and Livestock Australia)
    Guide to how vaccinations work and the vaccines available for sheep.

    See also Vaccinations for Sheep in the Capital Region

  • 9 Jun 2021 10:57 AM | Alex James (Administrator)

    This event held on the 22 May 2021 was a combined webinar and paddock demonstration with Alice McGlashan.  Alice is a natural resource management practitioner and environmental educator who lives on a rural bush property near Canberra. At this event she shared her knowledge about feral predator management using different trapping methods.

    The webinar recording can be viewed here.

    Alice recorded a 15-minute video demonstrating the use of padded jaw traps, you can view the video here.

    This is a summary of the main points from the webinar and paddock walk, a list of resources can be found at the bottom of this page.

    1. The Pest Smart Website has a best practice guide for the use of cage and padded jaw traps. The website includes information on the model code of practice for the humane control of foxes and feral cats. Control programs should aim to reduce the negative impacts of the feral animal using the most humane, cost effective and efficient techniques available. You can browse the website for information and advice on most feral animals. Model Code of practice for the humane control of foxes. 
    2. Before you start trapping it is useful to know where pest animals are moving and feeding on your property. Information on our previous event Feral Animal Monitoring can be found here.
    3. Once you have determined a suitable site for trapping, Alice suggests you free feed using tasty treats for random days over a couple of weeks before you set your traps. You can use sardines, chicken wings, fresh dog bones, or roadkill rabbits for free feeding and as bait when setting traps.
    4. Anchor your traps safely using galvanised 8mm or 10mm chain and good quality galvanised small D shackles, to the trunk of a tree or strong fence post. You do not want your trapped animal escaping with a trap on its foot. If your neighbour’s dog gets trapped you can safely release and return them.
    5. Be trap responsible – check your trap every morning and afternoon. In the morning cover the trap so you don’t trap non target species during the day. You must not leave traps unsupervised and they need to be checked twice/day. If you catch a fox or feral cat you need a strategy to dispose of them safely and humanely. This could include using a captive bolt gun, organising a shooter or during working hours you can call South East Local Land Services for help. Having a cage big enough to hold the fox or cat is a good idea because you can release them into the cage and cover it in a quiet place until they can be euthanized.

    Links and Resources 

    South East Local Land Services Feral Fighters Program - Feral Fighters is an initiative to strategically target pest animals at a regional and state scale through strategic, coordinated group baiting control programs.

    South East Local Land Services have Biosecurity Officers who can help you develop a feral animal control program. They can help you organise a coordinated feral animal baiting program with your neighbours. Find your local Land Services Office here.

    Members Camera loan program - Small Farms Network Capital Region Members can borrow a wildlife monitoring camera to use for feral animal monitoring. 

    Trapping Equipment- There are many suppliers of trapping equipment. Alice uses Victor #1 1/2 and #1 3/4 2 coil traps from traps.com.au and gettrapped.com.au. You are encouraged to do your own research for suitable suppliers. 

    Pest Smart Website https://pestsmart.org.au/pest-animals/

    Trapping of foxes using padded-jaw traps (fox005) standard operating procedure.

    General methods of euthanasia under field conditions 

    This project was supported by South East Local Land Services.

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Small Farms Network Capital Region Inc
PO Box 313
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